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Java's equals()/hashCode()

One of my pet peeves of the Object.equals() and Object.hashCode() implementations that every class inherits in Java is the fact that, in principle, these are really intimate concerns of the class implementation, and that Object, a class that can be far removed from a user-defined type, should not be dictating what equality means to a descendant.

I mean, if I had to guess, I’d say that James Gosling, creator of the Java programming language, was already [righteously] thinking of collections when designing Java, but gave no thought to union types.

Enter union types

It turns out that since generics were first introduced in Java, union of types has been supported! Consider this example:

public interface Intersection<T extends Number & Comparable<T>> {
    public default int doSomething(T t1, T t2) {
        return t1.compareTo(t2) + t1.byteValue();

Pay attention to the implementation of doSomething: t1 holds methods of both Comparable and Number!

Having learned all this, I believe if Java had supported union types when it introduced Object.equals() and Object.hashCode(), then logically the latter two should have been introduced in their own two interfaces, perhaps Equality<T> and Hashcode respectively.

But first:

Reference equality

Java already provides the == operator, otherwise known as the reference equality operator. That is, if two references, X and Y, point to the same object in the heap, then X == Y will equal true.


The default implementation of Object.hashCode() is a native method call that “typically … [converts] the internal address of the object into an integer”.


The default implementation of Object.equals() is precisely a reference comparison!

public boolean equals(Object other) {
  return this == other;

In other words, whoever needs to perform the default “equality comparison” on an object already has the == operator at his disposal - no API contract required! Moreover, this violates the aforementioned principle, elegantly exposed by Brian Goetz - current Java language architect - while responding to a related inquiry:

The decision about equals/hashCode behavior is so fundamental that it 
should belong to the writer of the class, at the time the class is first 

This is another reason why equals() and hashCode() are best left as interface contracts to be implemented in classes, eg.:

//assume the declaration for Equality was legal in Java
public interface Equality<T> {
  public boolean equals(T other);

public interface HashCode {
  public int code();

… and any code with requirements on the equality or hashCode amongst instances of the types it accepts should really declare its intent via its API, eg.:

public interface Map<K extends Equality<K> & HashCode, V> {
  public V get(K key);

[EDIT 2017-11-05]

Reading back on this as I prepare my post on the new ‘data class’ proposal in project amber, I realized that the above interface proposals can be improved a bit:

Analyzing the equals() vs. the hashCode() contracts, it becomes obvious that despite mention of hashCode() in the equals() javadoc, the latter’s implementation does not depend on the former’s. However, hashCode() does make demands of equals(). Therefore, I amend my interface proposal to:

public interface Equality<T> {
  public boolean equals(T other);

 * Specifications for the requisites on Equality#equals
public interface HashCode<T> extends Equality<T> {
  public int code();

//and Map's declaration would clear up a bit
public interface Map<K extends HashCode<K>, V> {
  public V get(K key);

It is now clear that a) equality does not require an object to be hashable, and b) hashCode is a separate concern intended to improve performance of some collections that require Equality#equals to behave a certain way in order for those collections to behave properly.

This post is licensed under CC BY 4.0 by the author.

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